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The world population has more than doubled since 1960. If you take 1950 as the base year then the population has grown from 2.5 billion to 7.5 billion. Thousands of cities have been developed in the same time and millions of small villages have been developed in clusters as townships. With such an unprecedented expansion, there has been a crisis, that of waste management. The world is running out of landfills and with e-waste is becoming a global hazard the problem has become more severe. Landfills are utilitarian but they do have their limitations and dangers. Let us explore the pros and cons of landfills.

Pros of Landfills

1. Landfills are convenient to use.
They don’t need the waste to be transported from its source where it is generated to another distant or remote area where it would be dumped. The cost of transporting humongous waste, especially from large cities to remote regions of the country can run into millions in a year. The fact that the peripheral areas of most metropolises and even suburbs have become developed and cannot have landfills further complicates the challenge.

2. Landfills can use the waste generated in a city, town or district and produce energy.
There can be confined landfills that are not exactly next to human habitation or farmland and can be safely used in an eco friendly way to generate energy that can power the needs of the facility and the locals. The carbon dioxide and methane exuding from landfills can be harnessed to generate power. This also reduces the quantum of the waste present in landfills.

3. Landfills can keep cities, towns and districts clean.
Any region that doesn’t have a landfill or when the habitants know there is no efficient waste management system in place, the people would simply litter the roads, throw waste anywhere they feel like and dump large waste the nearest vacant lot they get that is not under surveillance.

4. Landfills are relatively safer than other waste management and disposal techniques.
Incinerators in particular are hazardous for their toxic byproducts. Landfills have their share of risks but not as major ones as other options.

Cons of Landfills

1. Toxic waste continues to pileup.
The most concerning problem of landfills is the toxic waste in the pileup will blend with the water or snow, when it rains or snows, and that can flow out of the landfill, contaminate ground water, damage crops and can cause serious health problems.

2. Methane is a concern.
It is fatal for humans and can cause significant damage to our eco-system. Methane can cause chronic and terminal diseases. It can also light up easily and entire landfills can be on fire in no time.

3. Dust, pollution and particulate matter would emanate from landfills.
Most landfills are open. The toxic waste would exude gases. There will be dust and all kinds of microbes as well as heavy metals.

When it comes to flooring choice, homeowners in the United States, the UK and Australia go for laminate flooring. Durable, beautiful and versatile, this type comes in trendy designs that make it a popular choice, especially nowadays where there are more designs to choose from. These include ceramic, stone and reclaimed wood designs, among others. However, despite the popularity of laminate flooring, there are opposing views on whether this is the best flooring of choice. Let us take a look at the advantages and disadvantages of this type of flooring.

List of Pros of Laminate Flooring

1. Appearance
Homeowners who prefer laminate flooring say that they go for this type of flooring because it resembles hard wood and other natural materials without having to go through a hard and tedious work. This is perfect for people who want the feel and look of hard wood in their homes without to worry about the damage real wood can have. Other designs of laminate flooring include stones, bamboos and different wood types in a variety of textures. Moreover, in real wood, not all boards are perfect and these defective ones need to be discarded as oppose to synthetic laminated floor where each and every board is of good quality.

2. Durability and Resistance
Proponents of the use of laminate flooring posit that this type of material will last longer than real wood. It does not dent and is resistant to scratches even if someone will key it. Aside from these, it can also take water spills and stains. Accidental water spills can easily be wiped dry and stains can be removed easily. Laminate flooring can also withstand impact and exposure to sunlight for a long period of time. It will not fade and moreover, most manufacturers and distributors offer warranties for wear and tear of the layer.

3. Installation
Another advantage of using laminate flooring is that it is very easy to install and fast. A 300 square feet floor area can have laminate flooring installed over the weekend. This is because there is no need to use nails to do so, unlike in real wood where nails are use to secure the boards on the floor. And with the types of laminates these days, planks can now fit together due to its click, fold or lock design. In terms of cutting the board for floor edges, utility knife or a handsaw can be used to do so. Moreover, it can be installed in areas with moisture, such as powder rooms or kitchens. On top of this, laminate flooring can be installed almost anywhere, in locations where installation of real wood is not an option. It can be installed over concrete, plywood, concrete, low grade installations and vinyl.

4. Convenience
Laminate flooring can be installed with or without underlayment. With the inclusion of the latter, the boards become a but springy that make them easy on the feet and allows an individual to remain standing for a long period of time, say, while cooking or washing the dishes.

5. Variety in Design
People who prefer to use laminate flooring say that it is easier for homeowners to find the design of the flooring that will suit their taste and preference. This is because designs of this type of flooring come in different choices, texture and finish like ceramic tile and stone tile designs.

List of Cons of Laminate Flooring

1. Repair Issues
Critics of the use of laminate flooring say that repairing or refinishing real wood costs at least half of the expense you get if you have laminate flooring installed. This is because wood can be refinished numerous times and can still get back its luster and appearance. Conversely, laminates are very difficult to repair in case one decides to do this. Moreover, hardwood can be replaced board by board so you can control the costs.

2. Moisture
Critics of laminate flooring argue that while this flooring type can be used in areas where moisture is present, it can fail with heavy moisture. Moreover, it cannot withstand too much water exposure and standing water like in a flooded basement or kitchen. If laminate flooring is soaked in water for a long time, it can expand and break down. Consequently, it will need to be replaced.

3. Installation Concerns
Even if installation of laminate flooring can be considered as a DIY project and is easy to do, critics say that no everyone can do it and it still needs skills to do the work the right way. Moreover, the first phase and the last phase are the most challenging steps in achieving successful installation, in terms of quality and finish. Although the click/lock and fold/lock design of laminate flooring was to ensure fast and easy installation, there can be issues along the way, particularly in joining adjoining sides. And if the installer is not skilled, there is a big chance of putting too much pressure on the board and this can result to curling up the layer on top. If this happens, the flooring will be prone to moisture.

4. Home Resale Value
For homeowners who plan to sell their homes, laminate flooring is not the best choice. This is because it is only synthetic. Potential buyers will go for hardwood floors because of its material and appearance. While laminate flooring can look like real wood, it is still not the real thing and this can affect the resale value of the home.

5. Material
Another concern of those who are not into laminate flooring is the material of the older designs which can be slippery and can lead to injuries in case of falls. While the newer ones have anti-slip properties, not all can easily replace old laminate flooring that is still undamaged or worn.

Laminate flooring is still one of the popular choices of homeowners because of its installation cost and maintenance. However, there are also disadvantages of using this flooring material. In the end, the decision depends on the personal preference of the homeowner.

A bond is a debt investment in which the investor lends money to the government or an institution in exchange for an issuance of bonds. The issuer is the entity that uses the money for several purposes, such as, additional capital, investments and acquisition. This practice presents both advantages and disadvantages but remains to be a popular choice among investors. Just as bonds have pros and cons to investors, the issuer of bonds will also experience advantages and disadvantages. Here are some of the benefits and drawbacks of bond issuance.

List of Pros of Issuing Bonds

1. Source of Cash
For companies in need of extra capital or resources for business operations, issuing bonds is one of the most effective techniques to do it. By issuing bonds, you get money from investors without making them part owner of the company. You only need to pay interest for letting them use their money and even if they have invested money in your organization, they are still not part of decision-making.

2. Tax Deductible
Another advantage of bond issuance is related to the interest an issuer has to pay its investors. This is because the payment of interest is subjected to tax deductions and considered an expense to the company. While this makes it possible to have money for business operations, it also reduces the taxes that need to be paid.

3. Access to Funds
People who prefer issuing bonds over selling stocks say that this lets the company to borrow money only when at a time it is needed. Instead of borrowing from banking institutions, companies can borrow from investors and only pay lower interest rates. Moreover, the issuing company can decide the period of maturity of the bond from 3 years or 30 years, depending on their preference. This also gives them control of their debts.

List of Cons of Issuing Bonds

1. Limitations
One of the setbacks of issuing bonds is the limited power or control of the issuer over where the money borrowed will be used. Since the investor wants to ensure that the money will be used responsibly, there will be limitations placed on the disbursement of the bond, say in the case of a governmental agency that issues the bond. If the money was intended to the construction of a bridge, this is where it should go. The bond cannot be allocated for use of another project.

2. Repayments
The money invested in bonds need to be repaid on a monthly basis until it matures, in which the issuer need to pay back the principal amount borrowed. As opposed to stocks where the company will not be responsible in case the stocks did not perform well, issuing bonds means that the issuer will have to come up with the interest payment regularly.

3. Liability
Another disadvantage of bond issuance is the obligation of the issuer to pay the investor the interest regardless of the financial status of the company. In stocks, the company is not liable to the investors if the stocks are down unlike in bonds where the issuer has to pay the investor. In addition, the interest rates will be a deduction to the profit of the company.

Issuance of bonds has both advantages and disadvantages. Any entity planning to sell bonds should understand the opportunities and responsibilities of these transactions.

Isolationism is a position taken in which a group, often a country, decides to remain apart from interactions with other entities. When nations or states declare themselves to be isolationist, it generally refers to its government’s wish not to trade or interact with other nations. In this case, they will not join alliances or agreements with other governments around the world.

This kind of foreign policy is clearly controversial – especially in these days of seemingly unstoppable globalization. However, as with any complex issue, there are pros and cons to this kind of policy and many perspectives to be had.

The Pros of Isolationism

1. Increased focus on domestic policy.
Some people feel that governments can become too distracted by foreign affairs and neglect domestic issues and policy. It is argued that when a country is isolationist, it can focus more intently and due to decreased investment in foreign aid and welfare, may have more budget availability for improving circumstances for citizens within the country.

2. Decreased need for spending on military budgets.
Many countries spend phenomenal amounts on their military budgets, but if the country has an isolationist stance, then there are great savings to be made in this area. A country that does not get involved in regional or international conflicts does not have the same need to maintain an expensive military. These savings could be spent on other programs that could benefit the country’s citizens and develop the country in many ways.

The Cons of Isolationism

1. Economy may suffer.
When you do not have trade agreements with other nations due to isolationist policies, it can affect how robust the nation’s economy is. For a strong and dynamic economy, there is usually a strong need for trade to be occurring between nations.

2. May become vulnerable to attack.
Countries that have got a policy of staying out of conflicts and which have got an undeveloped military may find themselves vulnerable to attack. In addition, since the country has not been actively involved in wars or conflicts, the soldiers, marines and so on may not have the necessary experience and expertise to counteract attacks.

There are a great many pros and cons to developing a foreign policy that engages with isolationism. Decisions about how and why a country will interact and communicate with other countries need to be made after seriously weighing up each of these pros and cons taking into consideration all the perspectives at hand.

IPv6 has established itself as a powerful industry-standard, though there are still some advantages and disadvantages to taking leveraging IPv6 compared to its predecessors. Not all of those in the technology world are going to truly appreciate these pros and cons, but it’s still really important to understand what you’re dealing with so that you can best move forward with the IPv6 protocol or without it.

Let’s break down the different advantages and disadvantages you may encounter when you decide to make the switch to IPv6 (or not).

The Pros of IPV6

1. More Address Space
For starters, IPv6 allows for a considerably larger address space – more than doubling the length of network and host components compared to IPv4 addresses.

While some have been led to believe that IPv6 uses billions and billions of addresses for “every single grain of sand on the planet”, nothing could be further from the truth – though the amount of space for addresses here is considerably larger than almost anywhere else.

2. Eliminate Subnetting Word Problems
Secondly, you can forget almost completely about dealing with subnetting word problems ever again!

The new IPv6 protocol allows for stateless automatic configuration as a replacement for static IP addresses (or the DHCP), even though both of these options are still available should you decide to go in that direction. This is a pretty considerable shift and change, and it’s one that really makes IPv6 super attractive.

3. Automatic Link Local Addressing
Automatic link local addressing is also really streamlined with IPv6, something that previous versions simply didn’t have the kind of “room” for and something that was a bit of a chore until this protocol rolled around.

The Cons of IPV6

Not all sunshine and roses when it comes to IPv6, however.

1. Difficulty with Topology Drawings
For starters, it’s a lot harder to fit prefixes on all of your topology drawings when you are running the IPv6 protocol.

IPv4 protocols had incredibly short length attached to them which made for really easy overlay on topology drawings. With all the extra space with IPv6 you’re going to have a bit of a tougher time.

2. System Issues
Another con that you may bump up against (but also one that you may not) is that you have too often enable IPv6 routing depending upon the kind of system that you are running. You will also have to type considerably longer address when you entered this kind of data manually, and there isn’t a lot of fun in that – and the potential for mistakes shoot through the roof.

At the end of the day, IPv6 is definitely here to stay in the benefits significantly outweigh the disadvantages.

Investing can be a good source of wealth especially when it is handled properly. Although it can be lucrative, investing also has an inherent risk. There are many types of investment portfolios you can place your fund. Some people would tell you to invest in stocks. Others would suggest investing in bonds or long-term deposits.

On the other hand, investing in mutual funds is still popular not only for novice investors but also for expert portfolio managers. There are many reasons why you should choose mutual funds. But before you make any decision, there are also many things you should consider in order to determine your success.

What Is Mutual Fund?

Mutual fund is a type of investment in which all funds from different investors are pooled and spread across various portfolios such as stocks. The reason for this is to reduce the risk by spreading it. If there’s a saying that you should not put all your eggs in one basket, such principle is the concept behind mutual fund investing.

Types of Mutual Funds

1. Open-End Mutual Fund
This type of mutual fund works like a stock broker. It accepts funds and reinvest them in various stock portfolios. The profit of investors is determined by how mutual fund managers handle the funds. You can also withdraw your money the same way you can withdraw your money from a stockbroker.

2. Closed-End Mutual Fund
Closed-end mutual funds, on the other hand, are like stocks which are listed and traded in stock exchange. They have fixed rate of dividends and are valued according to current market price. If you want to invest in closed-end mutual funds, you can analyze their charts the way you analyze the price action of a particular stock. Closed-end mutual funds are the same mutual fund companies you can invest your money in, but such companies as public corporations are also listed as other companies being traded in stock exchange.

Pros of Investing in Mutual Funds

1. Diversified Portfolios
Your money in mutual fund is invested not only in one single portfolio investment. It is invested and distributed among hundreds of portfolios along with the funds of other investors. In this way, your money is safe even if one of the hundreds of portfolios is losing because the rest the portfolios may offset the loss. If the overall market is good, mutual funds are more likely profitable.

2. Managed Account
Mutual funds are managed by expert traders and analysts who work on behalf of the company and of the investors. If you don’t have enough time or knowledge in investing in mutual funds, your money is safely managed by those who spend full time monitoring the market.

3. Liquid
Mutual fund is liquid. You can get in and out of the market any day. Although it is not as liquid as stocks in which buying and selling can take place any time of the day, mutual funds can be settled at the closing of the market.

4. Accumulation
In trading stocks, your fund will not accumulate unless you purchase additional shares, or the annual shareholders meeting of the company you bought declares that the dividends be reinvested. In mutual fund, you have the option to get your dividend or to reinvest it. If you choose to reinvest it, your fund will accumulate, and so will your income.

5. Wide Range of Investment Portfolios
Mutual funds are not only limited to investing in stocks. They also invest in several other types of investments such as bonds, currency, commodities, real estate, and bank notes. This means mutual funds can thrive in other markets if one market slows down.

6. Low Minimum Required Amount of Investment
Investing in mutual fund is not only for wealthy people. You can start investing in mutual funds for as low as $50.

Cons of Investing in Mutual Funds

1. Less Control
Although your money is invested in many different types of portfolios, you have less control of it. It is the money managers who decide where and when to trade the fund based on their market study.

2. Fees
Mutual funds charge an annual fee of around 1.5% or even higher regardless of the fund’s performance. Moreover, they charge a “load” or a certain amount per sales transaction.

3. Low Return
Mutual funds are safe, but the return is not as high as other forms of investment. In investing, the higher the return, the higher the risk. Mutual funds are low risk investment.


Many people have already made fortune out of investing, but there have also been many people who lost their fortune in the same manner. Your success will depend on which type of investment you would like to put your money in. Mutual funds may not promise the same fortune others earned, but it can guaranty you would not lose as much as others lost in other forms of investments. Although every investment has an inherent risk, mutual funds can be one of the safest investments you can try.

An internship is when a student or trainee works for a company in order to gain valuable experience – often, experience that must be learned hands-on versus from books. For example, doctors must go through an internship in order to meet the qualifications for their medical degree. Many individuals in the performing arts and fashion industries go through internships to gain valuable experience towards their craft.

Oftentimes, an internship is either necessary or would serve a position purpose in one’s career. Other times, however, an internship may not be warranted. It is either unnecessary, or wouldn’t really be useful. Before jumping into an internship it is important to weight out all the pros and cons. Using that, you can decide if an internship is right for you, and what you’d like to accomplish with it.

The Pros of Internships

1. You can gain valuable experience that may not be available in an entry level position
2. That experience, as a bonus, is hands-on. Many skills are better mastered this way, and many people simply learn better with a hands-on approach versus textbooks.
3. For some people, an internship meets requirements necessary for degrees or certifications
4. Since you’re basically getting paid in experience, you’ll have the ability to complete many different tasks and work on many different projects. This can help to keep the work fun and interesting.
5. There is always a possibility you could be hired on as a full time employee at the end of your internship.

The Cons of Internships

1. One of the main cons is that internships are often (as in almost always) unpaid.
2. Some may kind of look down on you, as though you’re not even part of the staff. This is a sad truth, but some professionals might see you as unqualified, and therefore, below them.
3. The term ‘intern’ will be basically glued to you, which causes a lot of people to assume you are still a student (even if you’ve already graduated from schooling and are now joining an internship for job-specific skills)
4. Since you’ll be working on a lot of different tasks, your hours may be varied, causing difficulty in creating a solid schedule.
5. Often, you’ll have to start with the grunt work as an intern, and work your way up to the things you really want to learn.

Based on the pros and cons listed above, you should be able to determine whether an internship is the right choice for you. The most important thing in the long run, however, is to remember it is your decision. Never feel pressured to take an internship – or just any internship, instead of the one you really want.

International trade is not always popular with domestic audiences but it is responsible for moving goods and service across the globe as well as expanding opportunities for economic growth. There are some obvious benefits of to international trade that are on display every time we visit a grocery store or shopping mall and find products from all over the world, however this policy also comes with some very well known costs.

The Pros of International Trade

1. Comparative Advantage
One of the foundational principles of economics is that production of a good or service should not necessarily come from the place that can produce the most output in absolute terms, but should come from wherever is relatively most suited to the task when compared to the most valuable use of resources in different locations. This concept can seem complicated but it underpins the economic logic supporting international trade.

2. Diplomacy
Countries that trade together are generally less likely to engage in conflict with one another than those that do not. There are exceptions to every rule but international trade promotes diplomacy by fostering engagement between cultures and countries. The connections these form between governments, individuals, and businesses then produces common interests that promote stable relations.

3. Increases Choice and Opportunity
Today, corporations and consumers have grown accustomed to using foreign goods or selling their products abroad. This growth in choice and opportunity is a direct result of the expansion of international trade that has taken place as a result of technological progress as well as breaking down protectionist barriers.

The Cons of International Trade

1. Unemployment
While international trade is generally assumed to promote growth across an economy, certain sectors lose out as a result of new competition or take the opportunity to move production to a lower cost location. The unemployment this produces can be particularly acute in certain sectors, such as heavy manufacturing, and can leave segments of the population resentful of the changes.

2. Environmental Destruction
International trade can have devastating effects on the environment. From the destruction of local ecosystems in search of raw materials to the pollution produced by transporting products across large distances, there are many ways that trade policy impacts the planet. Environmental concerns are increasingly raised in trade negations and incorporated into the final agreements in recent years.

3. Loss of Local Producers
Aside from the unemployment that comes follows companies going out of business or moving overseas, the production of certain goods and services can define the culture as well as economy of many regions. When these are lost, the value is often hard to quantify.

There are many ways companies fill up vacancies for specific jobs. The two most common approaches are internal recruitment and external recruitment. At times, there are deputations or temporary positions and not necessarily recruitment. Internships are mostly temporary and a type of external recruitment. Exchange programs, although rare among disassociated companies, are also a derivative of external recruitment. Internal recruitment is hiring from within the ranks and files of employees already working for the company. There are obvious advantages and disadvantages of such an approach.

List of Pros of Internal Recruitment

1. Simple & Quick
The recruitment process is very simple. One doesn’t have to use job portals or spend on advertising and one doesn’t pay to the human resource consultants or on events wooing potential jobseekers. All that a company needs to do is make a shortlist of the most suited candidates from within the payroll and then interview all the best ones in that list to find the ideal one. This is a very simple, fast and reliable process.

2. Effective Transition
Internal recruitment has two very important advantages. The company knows the employee and the employee knows the business, hence the job. Usually, it takes months for a company to truly understand and know a new recruit. A new recruit also takes a long time to truly develop the same philosophies and have a realistic understanding of what the company does, how and why. Internal recruitment pertaining to employees that have worked for a few years with the same organization will always have both the employer and the recruit on the same page. There is very little transition time and complexity while moving the employee to the new job description.

3. Impact on Workplace Culture
The induction process is simple, there is no major need for cultural grooming or on the job training, it paves the way for healthy workplace competition and the recruitments can effectively become promotions. The visible progression and possibilities of career advancement will always encourage the other employees when you go for internal recruitment. Everyone wants to know that there is scope for growth, at least the talented and ambitious employees.

List of Cons of Internal Recruitment

1. Unsuitable & Ineffective
You may not have the right talent or the right person with the ability, experience and drive to suit the job. Focusing on internal recruitment will be unwise in such circumstances.

2. Calls for Perennial Grooming
If you are not grooming people for internal recruitment, then there will be a gap in the hierarchy and you will still have to resort to external recruitment to fill that space.

Index funds have exploded in popularity among investors in the last two decades. These passive instruments are now designed to track the largest markets as well as small segments within them. The companies specializing in creating and managing these funds have attracted trillions of dollars in investments into this relatively new financial product because there are some clear advantages when compared to other investment vehicles, however there are some possible downsides that investors must be cautious of.

The Pros of Index Funds

1. Less Expensive
Because index funds are designed to track a basket of assets, the management fees attached to this investment are far lower than other alternatives. The annual cost of owning an index fund is usually less than one percent of the overall investment compared with large annual fees charged by hedge funds and other financial advisors.

2. Diverse
Financial advisors recommend a well balanced portfolio to avoid over exposure to a particular stock or sector. It can be expensive for an ordinary investor to accumulate shares in many different companies but index funds solve this problem by allowing individuals to purchase a basket of different stocks for a far lower price.

3. Efficient
Many ordinary investors as well as high priced asset managers believe they can outsmart the market consistently. Unfortunately, its almost impossible to over the long term. One of the principles of modern economics is that public markets are the most efficient way to price an asset in real real time, incorporating all available information. This theory has been demonstrated over time and index funds take advantage of this by tracking the performance of the market or a sector as a whole rather than relying on individual judgment.

The Cons of Index Funds

1. Opaque
Because the assets behind index funds are frequently changing and there are not uniform reporting standards, it is far more difficult for an investor to determine exactly what they own than if they purchased a share of an individual corporations. This is particularly important for investors focused on corporate responsibility or impact investing.

2. No Upside
Despite the difficulty in achieving constant returns over the long term, many investors and actively managed funds are able to outperform the market overall. Index funds remove this possibility, however remote, by tracking market performance rather than exceeding it.

3. Unknown Management
Trusting your hard earned money with someone takes a lot of trust, which is why many investors prefer to have a personal relationship with their asset manager. Index funds still rely on management but the individual investor will never know the people who are performing the operations behind the scenes.